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Grade 9 Science Tutor

Grade 9 Science Tutoring

The science courses in the Grade 9 and 10 curriculum are offered in academic and applied streams. Academic courses develop students’ knowledge and skills through the study of theory and abstract problems. These courses focus on the essential concepts of a subject and explore related concepts as well. They incorporate practical applications as appropriate.

Applied courses focus on the essential concepts of a subject, and develop students’ knowledge and skills through practical applications and concrete examples. Familiar situations are used to illustrate ideas, and students are given more opportunities to experience hands-on applications of the concepts and theories they study.

Overall Expectations

  • Demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating)
  • Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and identify scientists who have made contributions to those fields
  • Assess the impact of human activities on the sustainability of terrestrial and/or aquatic ecosystems, and evaluate the effectiveness of courses of action intended to remedy or mitigate negative impacts
  • Investigate factors related to human activity that affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and explain how they affect the sustainability of these ecosystems
  • Understand the dynamic nature of ecosystems, particularly in terms of ecological balance and the impact of human activity on the sustainability of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
  • Assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements and compounds, with reference to their physical and chemical properties
  • Investigate, through inquiry, the physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds
  • Understand the properties of common elements and compounds, and of the organization of elements in the periodic table
  • Assess some of the costs, hazards, and benefits of space exploration
  • Investigate the characteristics and properties of a variety of celestial objects visible from Earth in the night sky
  • Understand the major scientific theories about the structure, formation, and evolution of the universe and its components and of the evidence that supports these theories
  • Assess some of the costs and benefits associated with the production of electrical energy from renewable and non renewable sources, and analyze how electrical efficiencies and savings can be achieved, through both the design of technological devices and practices in the home
  • Investigate various aspects of electricity, including the properties of static and current electricity, and the quantitative relationships between potential difference, current, and resistance in electrical circuits
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of static and current electricity

Grade 9 Science Sample Curriculum

Scientific investigation skills and career exploration


  • Formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues, make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research
  • Identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research questions
  • Conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data
  • Gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams
  • Analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or uncertainty
  • Analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias
  • Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions
  • Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats
  • Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement
  • Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely
  • Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study and the education and training necessary for these careers
  • Identify scientists who have made a contribution to the fields of science under study

Biology: Sustainable ecosystems


  • Assess, on the basis of research, the impact of a factor related to human activity that threatens the sustainability of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of government initiatives and/or the efforts of societal groups or non-governmental organizations with respect to an environmental issue that affects the sustainability of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems
  • Use appropriate terminology related to sustainable ecosystems, including, but not limited to: bioaccumulation, biosphere, diversity, ecosystem, equilibrium, sustainability, sustainable use, protection, and watershed
  • Interpret qualitative and quantitative data from undisturbed and disturbed ecosystems (terrestrial and/or aquatic), communicate the results graphically, and, extrapolating from the data, explain the importance of biodiversity for all sustainable ecosystems
  • Plan and conduct an investigation into how a human activity affects soil composition or soil fertility and, extrapolating from the data and information gathered, explain the impact of this activity on the sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems
  • Plan and conduct an investigation into how a human activity affects water quality and, extrapolating from the data and information gathered, explain the impact of this activity on the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems
  • Analyse the effect of human activity on the populations of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by interpreting data and generating graphs
  • Compare and contrast biotic and abiotic characteristics of sustainable and unsustainable terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
  • Describe the complementary processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis with respect to the flow of energy and the cycling of matter within ecosystems and explain how human activities can disrupt the balance achieved by these processes
  • Describe the limiting factors of ecosystems
  • Identify the earth’s four spheres and describe the relationship that must exist between these spheres if diversity and sustainability are to be maintained
  • Identify various factors related to human activity that have an impact on ecosystems, and explain how these factors affect the equilibrium and survival of ecosystems

Chemistry: Atoms, elements and compounds


  • Assess the usefulness of and/or the hazards associated with common elements or compounds in terms of their physical and chemical properties
  • Assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements or compounds
  • Use appropriate terminology related to atoms, elements, and compounds, including, but not limited to: boiling point, mixtures, particle theory, pure substances, and viscosity
  • Identify the physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds
  • Plan and conduct an inquiry into the properties of common substances found in the laboratory or used in everyday life and distinguish the substances by their physical and chemical properties
  • Conduct appropriate chemical tests to identify some common gases on the basis of their chemical properties, and record their observations
  • Construct molecular models to represent simple molecules
  • Explain how different atomic models evolved as a result of experimental evidence
  • Describe the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons, including charge, location, and relative mass
  • Distinguish between elements and compounds
  • Describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds
  • Describe patterns in the arrangements of electrons in the first 20 elements of the periodic table, using the Bohr-Rutherford model
  • Explain the relationship between the atomic structure of an element and the position of that element in the periodic table
  • Compare and contrast the physical properties of elements within a group and between groups in the periodic table
  • Identify and use the symbols for common elements and the formulae for common compounds

Earth and Space Science: Study of the Universe


  • Assess the contributions of governments, organizations, businesses, and/or individuals to space technology, research, and/or exploration
  • Assess some of the costs, hazards, and benefits of space exploration taking into account the benefits of technologies that were developed for the space program but that can be used to address environmental and other practical challen
  • ges on Earth
  • Use appropriate terminology related to the study of the universe, including, but not limited to: celestial objects, orbital radius, retrograde motion, and satellite
  • Use direct observation, computer simulation, or star charts to determine the location, appearance, and motion of well-known stars and other celestial objects that are visible in the night sky
  • Plan and conduct a simulation that illustrates the interrelationships between various properties of celestial objects visible in the night sky
  • Gather and record data, using an inquiry or research process, on the properties of specific celestial objects within the solar system
  • Compare and contrast properties of celestial objects visible in the night sky, drawing on information gathered through research and using an appropriate format
  • Describe observational and theoretical evidence relating to the origin and evolution of the universe
  • Describe observational and theoretical evidence relating to the formation of the solar system
  • Describe the major components of the solar system and the universe using appropriate scientific terminology and units
  • Describe the sun’s composition and energy source, and explain how its energy warms Earth and supports life on the planet
  • Explain the causes of astronomical phenomena
  • Describe various reasons that humankind has had for studying space

Physics: The characteristics of Electricity


  • Analyse the design of a technological device that improves its electrical efficiency or protects other devices by using or controlling static electricity
  • Assess some of the social, economic, and environmental implications of the production of electrical energy from renewable and non-renewable sources
  • Produce a plan of action to reduce electrical energy consumption at home
  • Use appropriate terminology related to electricity, including, but not limited to: ammeter, amperes, battery, current, fuse, kilowatt hours, load, ohms, potential difference, resistance, switch, voltmeter, and volts
  • Conduct investigations into the transfer of static electric charges by friction, contact, and induction, and produce labelled diagrams to explain the results
  • Predict the ability of different materials to hold or transfer electric charges, and test their predictions through inquiry
  • Plan and carry out inquiries to determine and compare the conductivity of various materials
  • Design, draw circuit diagrams of, and construct series and parallel circuits and measure electric current I, potential difference V, and resistance R at various points in the circuits, using appropriate instruments and SI units
  • Analyse and interpret the effects of adding an identical load in series and in parallel in a simple circuit
  • Investigate the quantitative relationships between current, potential difference, and resistance in a simple series circuit
  • Solve simple problems involving potential difference V, electric current I, and resistance R, using the quantitative relationship V = IR
  • Determine the energy consumption of various appliances, and calculate their operating costs
  • Calculate the efficiency of an energy converter, using the following equation: percent efficiency = (Eout /Ein) × 100%
  • Identify electrical quantities and list their symbols and their corresponding SI units
  • Explain the characteristics of conductors and insulators and how materials allow static charge to build up or be discharged
  • Compare and contrast static electricity with alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC)
  • Identify the components of a simple DC circuit
  • Explain the characteristics of electric current, potential difference, and resistance in simple series and parallel circuits, noting how the quantities differ in the two circuits
  • Describe, qualitatively, the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and electric current
  • Explain what different meters measure and how they are connected within an electrical circuit to measure electrical quantities
  • Explain how various factors influence the resistance of an electrical circuit
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